Titanium: value, excess and disadvantage, titanium in products
Titan – chemical element, quite widespread in nature. This is a metal, silver gray and solid; It is part of many minerals, and it is possible to extract it almost everywhere – Russia ranks second in the world for the production of titanium.
Many titanium in Titanic Zhelens – Ilmenite related to complex oxides, and golden-red routine, which is a polymorphic (diverse and capable of existing in different crystalline structures) of titanium dioxide – chemists know three such natural compounds.
Titan is often found in rocks, but in soils, especially sandy, it is even more. Among titanium-containing rocks can be called Perovskite – it is considered rather common; Titanite – Titanium silicate and calcium, which is attributed to therapeutic and even magical properties; Anataz – also a polymorphic connection – simple oxide; And Brochit is a beautiful crystal, often found in the Alps, and in our country in Russia – in the Urals, Altai and Siberia.
The merit of the opening of titanium belongs immediately by two scientists – German and Englishman. English scientist William Mc Gregor was not a chemist, but minerals were very interested, and once, at the end of the XVIII century, unknown metal from the Black Sand, and he soon wrote an article about him.
This article read and famous German scientist, chemist M.G. Claprot, and after 4 years after Mc Gregor found Titan’s oxide (so he called this metal, and the British called him Menaakkin – by the name of the place where it was found) in the Red Sand, distributed in Hungary. When the scientist compared the compounds found in the black and red sand, they turned out to be titanium oxides – so this metal was opened by both scientists independently.
By the way, the name of the metal has nothing to do with the ancient Greek gods of Titans (although there is such a version), but called him in honor of Titania – Queen Fay, who wrote Shakespeare. This name is associated with the ease of titanium – its unusually low density.
After these discoveries, many scientists have once tried to highlight pure titanium from its compounds, but in the XIX century it was possible badly – even the Great Mendeleev considered this metal rare, and therefore interesting only for "clean" science, and not for practical purposes. But scientists of the 20th century realized that Titan in nature is much – about 70 minerals contain it in its composition, and today many such deposits are known. If we talk about metals widely used by a person in a technique, you can find only three, which are more in nature than titanium – it is magnesium, iron and aluminum. Chemists also say that if you quantify all the stocks of copper, silver, gold, platinum, lead, zinc, chromium and some of some metals, which are rich in the ground, the titanium will turn out more than them all.
Out of compounds, pure titanium chemists have learned only in 1940 – they made American scientists.
Many properties of titanium have already been studied, and it is used in different spheres of science and industry, but here we will not consider this side of it in detail – we are interested in the biological value of Titan.
The use of titanium in medicine and the food industry is also interested in us – in these cases, Titan comes directly into the human body, or contact him. One of the properties of this metal is very pleased: scientists, including physicians, consider Titan safe for humans, although chronic light diseases may occur in its excessive admission to the body.
Titan in products
Titanium is in sea water, plant tissues and animals, and therefore in products of plant and animal origin. Plants receive titanium from the soil on which they grow, and animals get it, entering these plants, but at the beginning – already in the XIX century – chemists opened titanium in the body of animals, and only later in plants. These discoveries were again made by the Englishman and German -. Riesom and A. Aergold.
In the body of a man titanium about 20 mg, and it is usually entered with food and water. Titanium is in eggs and milk, in meat of animals and plants – their leaves, stems, fruits and seeds, but in general in food products. Plants, especially algae, contain more titanium than animal tissues; Much of it in the storage food – bush bright green algae, often found in fresh reservoirs and seas.
Titanium value for human body
Why Titan needs human body? Scientists say that his biological role is not clarified, but it is involved in the process of formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow, in the synthesis of hemoglobin and in the process of formation of immunity.
Titanium is in the human brain, in rumors and visual centers; In female milk, it is always, and in certain quantities. Titanium concentrations in the body activate metabolic processes, and improve the total blood composition, reducing cholesterol and urea content in it.
For a day, a person gets about 0.85 mg of titanium, with water and food, as well as with air, but in the gastrointestinal tract, it absorbs weakly – from 1 to 3%.
For a person, Titan is non-toxic or small-toxic, and there is no data about the lethal dose of physicians, but with regular inhalation of titanium dioxide it accumulates in lungs, and then chronic diseases are developing, accompanied by shortness of breath and cough with a mocroid – tracheitis, alveolit, etc. Titanium accumulation along with other, more toxic elements, causes inflammation and even granulomatosis – severe disease of vessels, life-threatening.
Excess and lack of titanium
What can explain the redundant arrival of titanium into the body? As, as already mentioned, Titan is applied in many areas of science and industry, an excess of titanium and even poisoning them often threatens working various industries: machine-building, metallurgical, paintwork and T.D. Titanium chloride is most toxic: it is enough to work at such a production about 3 years, not particularly observing safety techniques, and chronic diseases will not slow down to manifest.
True diseases are usually antibiotics, defoamers, corticosteroids, vitamins; Patients should be alone and get plentiful drinking.
Titan’s deficiency – both in humans and animals, has not been identified and not described, and in this case it can be assumed that it really does not happen.
In medicine, Titan is unusually popular: from it there are excellent tools, and at the same time affordable and inexpensive – Titan costs from $ 15 to $ 25 per kilogram. Love titanium orthopedists, dentists and even neurosurgeons – and not surprisingly.
It turns out that titanium has a valuable quality for physicians – biological inertness: this means that the designs of it are perfectly behaved in the human body, and are absolutely safe for muscle and bone fabrics that they are in advance with time. The structure of the tissues does not change: titanium is not subject to corrosion, and its mechanical properties are very high. Suffice it to say that in sea water, which in composition is very close to the human lymph, the titanium can collapse at a rate of 0.02 mm in 1000 years, and in alkali solutions and acids, it looks like a platinum.
Among all the titanium alloys used in medicine differ in purity, and there are almost no impurities in them, which cannot be said about cobalt alloys or stainless steel.
Internal and external prostheses made of titanium alloys are not destroyed and not deformed, although all the time maintain workloads: the mechanical strength of titanium is 2-4 times higher than in pure iron, and 6-12 times higher than that of aluminum.
Titanium ductility allows you to do anything with him – cut, drill, grind, ride at low temperatures, roll – It turns out even thin foil.
The temperature of its melting, however, is quite high – about 1670 ° C.
Titanium electrical conductivity is very low, and it relates to non-magnetic metals, so patients with titanium structures in the body can be prescribed physiotherapeutic procedures – it is safe.
Titanium dioxide is used in the food industry – as a dye denoted as E171. They paint candy and chewing, confectionery and powder products, noodles, crab sticks, stuffing products; They also brighten the glaze and flour.
In pharmacology, Titan dioxide paint medications, and in cosmetology – creams, gels, shampoos and other means.