Threat miscarriage during pregnancy, what to do
Any manifestations of pain and bleeding during pregnancy require immediate medical care. It can be a signal to start miscarriage. The first question of any woman pursues the threat of miscarriage during pregnancy – what to do? The answer is not to panic ahead of time! If you do everything right, the miscarriage can be avoided by giving birth afterwards a healthy child.
threat of miscarriage during pregnancy, what to do
The miscarriage is a complication of pregnancy with spontaneous rejection of the fetus in a period in which the child is not viable outside the uterus. The difference between miscarriage and premature birth is simple: after childbirth, you can save, since its organs are viable and developed, after miscarriage – the survival of the fetus is impossible. Thanks to the achievements of modern medicine, the ability to maintain life outside the womb is even as much as possible, even at the most immature fetus. In developed countries, children born at the 25th week of pregnancy are already safely held. At the same time, premature children subsequently do not lose the ability to grow and quite normally develop.
Threat of miscarriage in early pregnancy: what to do
Specialists distinguish spontaneous miscarriages caused by natural causes, as well as artificial (abortion or abortion). The latter may be provoked, for example, for medical reasons. Further we will talk about spontaneous miscarriages.
Causes of spontaneous miscarriage
They may be different, depending on the health of a woman, its history of previous pregnancies, abortion and so on. More than 60% of cases of miscarriages are due to the pathology of blastocysts, and sometimes the parent factors and other reasons play a decisive role. In 10-15% of pregnancies, miscarriages are random, without visible predispositions.
The most common cause of the threat of miscarriage during pregnancy is blasttionistosis. He entails an anomalies in the formation of a fetus that do not indicate the possibility of its ripening. Blastocystosis most often happens by merging the "bad" genital cells of mother and father. In these cases, the miscarriage usually occurs at the beginning of the 6-7 week of pregnancy. Do almost nothing with it. Yes and not worth it because the child as a result of blastocystosis is not normal. Subsequently, if the mother is healthy and there are no contraindications, you can immediately plan the following pregnancy. The probability of repetition of miscarriage for the same reason is negligible.
Causes of miscarriage in the development of the fetus:
– Pathology of sex cells (egg and spermatozoa) – often with repeating miscarriages;
– chromosomal fetal defects;
– Development defects (defects of the nervous system, heart disease, biochemical defects, etc.)
– defects in the development of umbilical cord;
– Defect caused by the antereograd chorionic fetal death
Causes of miscarriage in the state of the mother:
– Local changes in reproductive organs, such as vices of the uterus, its backwardness, tumors, uterine misa, cervical injuries. Also, erosion affects the miscarriage (often causes ectopic pregnancy), polyps, cervical cancer, spikes after inflammatory lesions. The threat of miscarriage during pregnancy can be caused by anomalies in the development of the placenta. Women who had similar anomalies during the year should be under strict medical control. Pregnant in this period strictly contraindicated.
– Mother’s age. Late is the onset of first pregnancy after 38 years.
– Diseases in Mother. These include: acute common diseases, virus diseases that are tested due to high temperature, chronic diseases (such as syphilis or toxoplasmosis), pathology of the endocrine function (for example, diabetes), mechanical injury, shock, mental and hormonal disorders and T.D.
– Rip the fetal shells and intrauterine infection.
– Complications due to diagnostic procedures (occur in rare cases): when exploring the fetus with the help of a special endoscope, under the amniocentesis test, during the biopsy of the fetus (the outer layer of the fruit shells of the embryo is carried out – puncture of the umbilical vein).
– Disturb in nutrition.
– Mental and emotional factors, such as fear of pregnancy, mental excitement.
Increased risk of miscarriage in women occurs after the treatment of infertility, with multiple pregnancy and women who drink alcohol and smoke during pregnancy. Often the threat of miscarriages arises after an abortion – develops without pregnancy (loss of 3 or more pregnancies in a row).
It is worth clarifying that myoma does not always entail a miscarriage. It is generally rarely seen from young women in general (more often occurs in 40-year-old). Many women with the Miser of the uterus will be pregnant without any problems, but in the second or third trimester of pregnancy may have problems. When observing doctors, the opportunity to give birth to a healthy child is large enough. In addition, Mioma rarely cause repeated miscarriage.
Symptoms of miscarriage
Signs of impending miscarriage – painless vaginal bleeding occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy (until the end of the 16th week). Symptoms of miscarriage often fall on the period of another menstruation for 4, 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy. Also often miscarriages occur about 14 weeks of pregnancy, during, when the placenta is formed, and the production of hormones in the yellow body is significantly reduced.
At first, the bleeding is weak, then the blood darkens, becomes brown. Sometimes it mixes with mucus. Bleeding can be short-term and insignificant. It happens that it resembles a normal menstrual cycle. Vaginal bleeding in the early periods of pregnancy is a common phenomenon and usually occurs once in four cases of confirmed pregnancy. It is always the blood of the mother, not the fetus. It happens that bleeding is minor and resolved spontaneously after a short time. However, if the bleeding is growing and accompanied by stupid pain in the lower abdomen – this is definitely the beginning of the miscarriage. If there is a further intensification of these symptoms, the rejection of blastocysts or part of the cervix – miscarriage already goes.
Incomplete, full, erroneous miscarriage
When the miscarriage is already underway and the fabrics of the placenta or the fetal bag (perhaps with the embryo) fall into the vagina – we are dealing with incomplete miscarriage. In this case, the state of the uterus threatens, the size of which corresponds to the development of pregnancy and the cervical canal is open. In case of incomplete miscarriage, part of the fabric is excluded, and some of the blastocysts and small fragments of the chorion biopsy remain in the uterus. Residues cause bleeding, which can be saved for a long time. In this case, the uterine cleaning is required, because otherwise the woman threatens intrauterine bleeding or infection. Cleaning is done under anesthesia.
If all parts of the fetal with the pocent were expelled from the uterus – the miscarriage is complete. It usually happens very early – on the seventh week. The uterus is empty and does not require additional cleaning.
Erroneous miscarriage is a frozen pregnancy. In this case, the embryo is dead, but the pregnancy continues. Dead fruit can stay in the uterus for several weeks, even months. The uterus ceases to grow, but its neck is tightly closed. The results of pregnancy tests may be uncertain for several weeks after the fetus death. The best way to determine whether the embryo is alive – it is to conduct an ultrasound. The fifth week of pregnancy can already be seen of the fetal heartbeat. If your doctor decides that pregnancy is frozen, the fruit must be removed as soon as possible.
The cause of bleeding can be a partial separation of the placenta or the fetal shells from the wall of the uterus. Sometimes the death of the embryo and, therefore, the miscarriage occurs even with scant and short-term bleeding. Pregnant women who started bleeding should always keep blood samples on a piece of fabric so that the doctor can study them.
Treatment and prevention of miscarriage
In some cases, the miscarriage can be effectively prevented. At the same time, treatment depends on the cause and nature of pregnancy complications. So different consequences of the threat of miscarriage during pregnancy, which is impossible to draw conclusions in advance. Sometimes you can give a healthy child and in the future there is no problem with pregnancy.
For a start, in the threat of miscarriage, conservative treatment is applied during which a woman should be immediately subjected to a medical examination and take medicines for the prescription of the doctor. As a rule, these diastolic effects, sedatives, painkillers, and sometimes hormonal (including medications that block prostaglandin production). Sometimes a woman is just enough to provide a friendly atmosphere in this difficult time for it to avoid making sedatives. Patient must necessarily lie in bed.
For any, even the slightest bloody discharge during pregnancy, consult with the doctor in the near future. It may perform an ultrasound study to determine on this basis whether the embryo is alive. If so, the woman is usually directed to the pregnancy pathology department for pregnancy. In 90% of cases it is successful, and pregnancy ends with the birth of a healthy child, as a rule, on time. However, since there is a risk of premature birth, pregnancy must be carefully tested. It happens that the woman "lives" in the ward for several weeks, and sometimes for several months.
With the vices of the cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy, there is an imposition of circular seams on the neck. It reduces its failure. The neck during pregnancy should be closed, otherwise the egg can fall out of the fetus of the uterus. Such treatment is effective in 80% of cases. It is very important that when applying to pregnant women, the doctor announced that he created such a seam!
If during pregnancy there is a rapid outflow of arrogant water or a woman noticed a constant expiring end – this can lead to a membrane rupture. In such a situation, a woman must be immediately hospitalized. Spontaneous start of birth is very difficult to stop. In the intrauterine infection requires induction of labor. Sometimes the membrane heals independently and pregnancy proceeds correctly.
To prevent the loss of pregnancy in connection with the serological conflict (which is currently rarely becomes the cause of miscarriage) during pregnancy, the blood transfusion is sometimes. It is intended to remove damaged cells, antibodies and excess bilirubin. In the course of exchange transfusion, 75% of the blood of a child is changing. It does not change his blood in essence, because the child will continue to produce blood cells with their own antigens. Patients also receive supporting therapy, which includes intravenous administration of albumin solution to reduce the risk of penetration of free bilirubin into the brain.
Patients for the prevention of incompatibility are injected with immunoglobulin RH D 72 hours after childbirth, miscarriage and abortion. The product contains a large amount of anti-RH. It works through the elimination of RH-positive fetal blood cells that penetrated the mother’s blood flow. The use of this drug protects against illness, and also protects the child upon subsequent pregnancy. This procedure should be repeated after each birth and miscarriage.
If, however, the serological conflict occurs in the second trimester of pregnancy, then, as a rule, the process precedes the fetal death, and then miscarriage. Subsequent pregnancy in such situations, as a rule, is very carefully tracked and usually ends with a successful birth of a healthy child.
First of all, you must wait for the introduction of sexual intercourse, at least 2 weeks (should not be applied during this period tampons). Some women renew sex life only after the first menstruation after the miscarriage, which usually appears in 4-6 weeks after the loss of pregnancy.
Ovulation is usually preceded by menstruation, so after miscarriage there is a danger of fast subsequent pregnancy. Experts recommend applying contraception methods at least three, four months after miscarriage. It should be recognized that there are well-known risks associated with the rapid onset of the next pregnancy after miscarriage. But wait is preferable not under medical reasons, but by psychological reasons. Woman after the loss of pregnancy is concerned about what will happen next. She feels fear and constantly asks if she can get pregnant and give birth to a child. This is an abnormal mental state that does not contribute to the streamlined development of pregnancy.
Miscarriages usually do not cause each other. The first miscarriage does not mean that with the next pregnancy will also be. After three consecutive miscarriages, the chances to give birth to a child make up 70%, four – 50%. If you have lost the first pregnancy in the first three months, the risk of losing another pregnancy is only slightly higher than that of the rest. Thus, although there is no guarantee that another pregnancy will take place without any interference, miscarriage does not cancel the chance for happy motherhood.
How often miscarriage
It is believed that one of the seven confirmed pregnancies ends with miscarriage. For example, in the UK, a pregnancy loses 100,000 women per year. This means hundreds of miscarriage per day. This scale increases significantly when considering unconfirmed pregnancy. That is, in cases where the woman had miscarriage before she realized that she was pregnant. These are three quarters of all losses of embryos.
In 20% of pregnant women at the beginning of pregnancy, bleeding occurs, half of which is proof of miscarriage. 1 out of 10 pregnancies ends in spontaneous miscarriage. 75% of the miscarriage occur in the first trimester of pregnancy, t.E. until 12 weeks from her. The frequency of miscarriages above in young women (under the age of 25) and only before the onset of menopause.