This is a sweet word – cottage

country houses then there were two. One mother’s mother, and she was a real miracle: a huge cherry garden, giving up to a cliff, down – ringing stream with all sorts of wild herbs on the shores. And on the slope of the cliff, the Malinik, in which the chicks removed the most real crimsons. Never forget these touching sockets, similar to woven baskets, and grandmother "sh-sh". The nest should be carefully bypass and not frighten the birds. Three old apple trees grew in the garden. The garden itself laid the grandfather with his grandmother before the war. And the grandmother was often leaning to one, then to the other, then to the third apple tree and said: "Here is your grandfather put"..

The country house of the father’s mother was relatively young, she was also planted and grandparents themselves, but for many years after the war. In this summer, everything was in science, my grandmother wrote out and bought many journals in gardening and flower growing, ordered the seeds by mail, actively fought with bear and other enemies of the garden exclusively by scientific methods.
The main domain of this summer cottage was a huge number of colors, starting with roses, gladiolus, dahlias, and ending with tiny night violets and aromatic rescrute. And the one, and the other grandmother cooked a wonderful jam, drumming away all the surrounding OS, literally sounding to fragrant basins with burglar berry thick.

In adolescence, I was fascinated by Chekhov, read out by his stories and discovered the world of summer residents of the XIX century. And the country’s life of that time seemed to me not only wonderful, but also romantic. Still would! After all, in those days, in addition to care for cottages and hiking campaigns, there were still household theaters and country novels … and most importantly, that all the households were at the cottage from morning to evening, and only the head of the family went to the city to work. Reaching Karamzin reading, I learned that in the summer Moscow is emptied, since its inhabitants rushed out of town.

In childhood and adolescence, I thought that the gift was invented in Russia and no one in the world there is no more such a miracle. And in some extent it is so. European dictionaries explain the Russian word "DATCHA" As "Russian rural house near the big city".
But still there are words in other languages ​​who transmit some similarity of our cottages. For example, in France, this "second dwelling" or "Country House" – Maison de Campagne, Residence Secondaire. Germans "Summer House" – Sommerhaus – or a small block of land with a barn for inventory – Schrebergarten. The British "Country House" – Country Cottage.

Interestingly, in Russia, the first daches appeared under Peter I. They represented the estate near St. Petersburg, which the king gave rise to the most about the merit before the Fatherland. And the word "cottage" itself was formed from the verb "Giving". During construction, first built at home in a simple style. But later began to stylize and build a dwelling, both in the "classic" and in the "Gothic", "Mauritanian", "Chinese" and other styles.

Mode at home at that time, naturally, asked the king and his closest relatives. For example, the emperor Nicholas I in 1821 presented his wife Alexander Fedorovna country house in Peterhof, which was rebuilt in the Gothic style. Named country house "Own Her Majesty country house Alexandria". And she represented a mansion in three floors with 27 rooms. Gothic was only outside, inside the cottage was arranged as a modern European home.

Inside the quarrels with Pushkin Bulgarin in 1837 published in the Nordic Bee newspaper under the name "country house", where he admired country settlements, believing that the appearance of cottages testifies to improving the well-being of people, because the presence of cottages testifies to high income.

The summer cottage of those times had to have not only a beautiful view, a garden, a park for walks with statues, grottoes, benches, but also a convenient driveway for crews. As well as a dwelling for servants, stables, peasants, gardens, greenhouses. Behind the house, many have a summer kitchen.

Bulgarian wrote: "I used to say about someone "He lives at the cottage" meant the same thing that "he is rich, Silen, impressed". There were people who came to the ranks who have acquired wealth who were not solved to live in country houses not to arouse a dialect, slander, envy. I remember all this very well! I heard as one secret adviser who had thousands of up to forty income, said at the table (for 35 years before SEN): "What am I for a nobleman to live in the country!". And now? And now my friend’s friend lives in the country, the assistant chassis in one of the provincial places, and my tailor! Do not look for the summer of the merchant in the shop, the pharmacist in the pharmacy, the German master in the workshop, Paper Delta in his office! All of them in the country!".

So gradually the summer at the cottages began to spend not only rich, having family estates. In the second half of the XIX century, cottages did not have to buy, they were rented for several years or filmed for the summer. And the ability to export the family for the city appeared from officials, engineers, doctors, creative intelligentsia. Often leased in the city of Apartment left, left the whole family to the cottage, and in the fall, the head of the family rented a new apartment and households in the city. Later, near Moscow noble estates appeared.

In the 30s of the XIX century, giving emerged in the nearest suburbs of Moscow – in Kuntsevo, Sokolniki, Ostankino, Perovo ..
In 1837, the first railway Saint Petersburg was opened – the royal village with a length of 27 km.
And in 1862 the first Moscow suburban route appeared – the northern branch, about 60 kilometers long, which reached Sergiev Posad and was intended for the transport of pilgrims to the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.

So The development of country construction contributed to the emergence of transport, and with the advent of the railways "Holiday Set" began to build on from the city – in Khimki, Hovrin, Tarasovka, Pushkino, Malakhovka, Tomilino. In 1888, according to specialists, around Moscow has already been over 6,000 cottages in 180 villages, where for the summer went from the city to 40,000 people.

This is a sweet word - cottage

Contemporaries say that Moscow dackets were often united in no reason as in St. Petersburg, but on intellectuality. So, there were whole communities around the historian Timofey Granovsky, the translator of Nikolai Ketcher and the publicist Alexander Herzen, who for several years shot a landlord house in the village of Sokolovo 20 kilometers from Moscow. This house gathered a variety of people with various views. The only restriction for visiting this house was limited and uneducation.

Researchers say that the cities of the middle of the XIX century have become more like modern megalopolises, depriving a person of the opportunity to be alone with nature and himself. Therefore, many metropolitan lifestyle began to be treated, and I wanted to run away from civilization at least for the summer. And country house brought together people, making the public deocratic.

After the revolution, summer houses appeared again in the "Petrovsky" sense of the word, that is, the lands were distributed to members of the government, writers, artists, musicians, scientists. True, they didn’t like the estate. In February 1938, the Politburo adopted a resolution "On country houses of Responsible Employees", in accordance with which the limit permissible number of rooms was established at country houses of officials: up to 8 rooms for family and up to 5 rooms for unseasonal.

Then there were already daches and for ordinary people. In February 1949, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On Collective and Individual Gardening and Gardening of Workers and Employees" was published. With Khrushcheva, Soviet people with enthusiasm worried their 6 acres, building small, often plywood houses, and with pleasure working in the garden and garden.

Now the country area can buy any size and build on it at least a house, at least a comfortable cottage. There would be money and desire. But, in my opinion, the cottage is still an opportunity to stop, at least for a while stopped fussing and think about eternal, hear the votes of nature and gain harmony.

"In St. Petersburg, it is currently all deaf and empty: deaf and empty on the streets, deaf and empty in theaters, deaf and empty in magazines, deaf and empty in confectionery and coffee houses … Petersburg all moved to cottages. What do you tell about Petersburg? We will talk about country houses and dackets!".
(Magazine "Northern Bee" for 1844.)

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