Border troops in the 19th – early 20th centuries

Border troops KGB of the USSR – troops intended for the protection and protection of water and land borders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, preventing and preventing encroachment on sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Like any other troops, border troops have their own history.

What is the story of the border troops in the 19th century and in the period of the First World and Civil War?

The content of the article:

Border troops in the 19th century

In 1823, became the minister of finance.F.Cankrin introduced a new customs tariff, sharply increased duties for imported foreign goods. Customs revenues increased from 30 to 81.5 million dollars.

August 5, 1827. E. F. Cankrin submitted to the approval to the emperor Nicholas I "Provision on the Border Customs Guardian". The document noted that "The main changes in this position consist in a solid military division of the Guardians, in the appointment of military commanders ..". In 1827, the border guard is established on the western land and marine border of the Empire. The gradual translation of the border guard to the position of the military organization begins.

The complicated situation at the border urged the strengthening and strengthening of the border guard, the final transformation into a purely military organization managed by the military command. All this led to the allocation from the Customs Office in an independent combat unit called – a separate building of the Border Guard. The initiator of the transformation was the Minister of Finance with.NS.Witte. The decree on the creation of the OKPS was signed by Emperor Alexander III 15 (27) of October 1893. This military formation, being as if in the operational submission of the Minister of Finance, was part of the armed forces and was completed on the Army principle already by the Military Office. Thus, the first commander of the border corps was the general from infanteria d.D. Svignin – Member of the Russian-Turkish War 1877-1878.

OKPS troops included control, 7 districts, 31 brigades, Belomorsky and Kerch special departments, detachments and posts. The total number of hull – 36,709 people, of them, generals, headquarters and ober-officers – 1,033.

In 1893, the Baltic Custom Cruising Flotilla also entered the composition of OKPS.

Border guards in the 20th century

In 1901, on the basis of the guard guard of the Sino-Eastern Railway, the Saamur Border District was created. He led the Saamur Border District General Martynov, – a man with a brilliant quarry and tragic fate. Prior to World War I, part of his district, oddly sounded, was posted on the territory of the neighboring state, in China, where the territory of KVA was guarded and adjacent to her territory from Honghuz raids. The task of the parts of the district was to protect against the gangster attacks of roads, stations, distillations, travelings, lumberjacks. Together with him served.G. Kornilov, the one that in the years of revolutionary troubles is accused of organizing the so-called counter-revolutionary "Cornilovsky Mountains". Although actually, the Patriot general is just unsuccessfully trying to prevent further rolling in Russia to the revolutionary chaos and anarchy.

After the revolution, General Martynov, unlike General Kornilov, who became one of the leaders of the White Movement, went to the service in the Red Army, dedicated to construction for more than ten years of life "invincible and legendary" – He headed the bodies of the Red Army, taught at the Military Academy. But during the years of Stalin’s repression, he was unreasonably accused of "counter-revolutionary activity" and shot. In the 50s, they were rehabilitated, but the honest name of the Russian general was restored in the chronicle of the border troops recently.

At the beginning of the war, Japan, Zaamurts entered into battle with the enemy, fought in Port Arthur, under Liaoyan and Mukden.

In the upbringing of moral principles, the border guards belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church. In the state of each brigade, priests were envisaged.

The first head of OKPS General A.D. Svedin died on the eve of the imperialist war – in 1913 and was buried in St. Petersburg. In subsequent years, a rampant – revolutionary troubles, civil war, class struggle, ideological infringement, – the burial turned out to be lost. But, fortunately, not forever. Nowadays the grave of the first general border guards found, landscaped, the warriors of the North-Western Regional Department of the FSB of Russia.

The period of the First World and Civil War

Border troops in the 19th - early 20th centuries

With the beginning of the First World War, border guards became part of the current army (except for the two Central Asian teams) and fought on various fronts. According to the research of the Academy of the Academy of the General Staff of the Tsarist Army, General N.NS. Golovin, in the First World War, the most persistent and combatable were Cossack troops and border guards. Many of them became Georgievsky cavaliers. After the February Revolution, when power in Petrograd moved to the temporary government, border guards were proposed "Keep full calm". Despite revolutionary shocks, the service continued. However, the situation on the border and the case has changed dramatically. Were removed from posts commander. A. Palochev and Head of Staff. TO. Kononov, many generals and officers. The disintegration of the building began.

The formation of Soviet border guard took place in difficult times. The old destroyed, and the new was not created. There were no hulls, but the veterans continusing. Their experience was necessary for the border guard of the Soviet state.

The last pre-revolutionary and first Soviet head of the border guardian, he is the prototype of General from the popular series "State border". General G.G. Mokacey-Shinsky dedicated to the border service all the conscious life: in the royal mode, he was sent to the assistant of the commander of the Piercarpus, under the temporary government he headed him, and under the Soviet government he was chosen by the head of Soviet border guards. In September 1918, he was removed from office. Pumped up the graph – the origin was the representative of the alien class. Its further fate has not yet been reliably established.

35 years old served on the border Colonel F.F. Tyutchev. This is not a single-factor of the famous Russian poet, a recognized master of landscape lyrics f.AND. Tyutchev. This is his son. The officer-border guard, like the Father, wrote poems, was fond of prose, in his work, first of all, reflected the harsh romance of the border service. At the beginning of the First World War, he went to the front, died from wounds in 1916. His works were reprinted even in Soviet times.

After the revolution, the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee (VRK) was performed in the country. He carried out work to strengthen the Soviet power, ensuring the security of the country, including the protection of its borders. Order of the VRC from 3 (16) of November 1917 and the instructions of the Commissioner of Torno station, other items of the European Border of the RSFSR, approved by VRK 12 (25) of November 1917, was announced on the temporary closure of the border and that departure from the country and entering it is allowed Only VRK signed by specially authorized persons.

Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR dated May 26, 1918, the borderline service was established to the protection of the border interests of the RSFSR, and within the boundary band, the protection of the identity and property of citizens. The first leaders of the border service of the republic became.R.Menzhinsky – People’s Commissar of Finance, Deputy Chairman of the ICC, and then Deputy Chairman of the OGPU; A.L.The singe – Military Head of the Main Department of the Border Guard of the RSFSR; NS. F. Fedotov – Military Commissar of the Main Department of Border Guards, Member of the Military Council of the Border Guard of the RSFSR.

The singer – the Kuban Cossack, since 1892, who has tied his life with the service in the army, he graduated from the Academy of General Staff in 1900. Member of the Russian-Japanese and First World War met in 1917 in the rank of major general. Was awarded many Russian orders. Entered the service in the Red Army in October 1917.

Information in this article is familiarized, and not a recommendation. Please do not engage in self-medication, be sure to consult a specialist.

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